carb-rinsing cycling time trials

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Decreases Time to Complete a Simulated Cycling Time Trial

“Rinsing carbohydrate solutions in the mouth can produce positive effects on the central nervous system via mouth/tongue receptors, ultimately increasing cycling performance.” (Baltazar-Martins G and Del Coso J, 2019)


 carb-rinsing cycling time trial

Effects of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time Trial Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

“The present systematic and meta-analytic review supports the notion that a carbohydrate mouth rinse has the potential to increase mean power output in cycling trials” (Sports Med. 2019)


 carb-rinsing cycling performance

Effects of various concentrations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance in a fed state

“…the use of carbohydrate mouth rinse can lead to improvements in performance times, average power outputs and average speed during a time trial...” (Devenney et al., 2016)


 carb-rinsing athlete performance

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Effects on Exercise Capacity in Pre- and Postprandial States

Carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves endurance capacity in both fed and fasted states in non-athletic subjects.” (Fares & Kayser. 2011)


 carb-rinsing HIT Running

Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted

“…carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves HIT running capacity undertaken in conditions of carbohydrate restriction when compared with rinsing a placebo solution.” (Kasper et al., 2015)


 carb-rinsing cycling trial performance

Mouth rinse but not ingestion of a carbohydrate solution improves 1-h cycle time trial performance

“…during this self-paced time trial, subjects worked at a higher power output and produced a higher lactate concentration with (carbohydrate) rinsing.” (Pottier et al., 2010)


 carb-rinsing Treadmill running

The Influence of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Self-Selected Speeds During a 30-min Treadmill Run

“…we found that despite being asked to run at the same perceived exertion, runners selected faster running speeds when mouth rinsing with the CHO (carbohydrate) solution (Rollo et al., 2008) 

 carb-rinsing running performance

Influence of Mouth Rinsing a Carbohydrate Solution on 1-h Running Performance

 “…runners who mouth rinsed…(with a carbohydrate solution) covered a greater distance during a 1-h running performance test than when they mouth rinsed a color- and taste-matched placebo.” “…we found that despite being asked to run at the same perceived exertion, runners selected faster running speeds when mouth rinsing with the CHO (carbohydrate) solution” (Rollo et al., 2010)


 carb-rinsing resistance training

Effect of Mouth-Rinsing Carbohydrate Solutions on Endurance Performance

 “…mouth rinsing a CHO (carbohydrate) solution is associated with improvements in performance.” …athletes who experience GI discomfort when ingesting (carbohydrates) while running may want to consider the mouth rinsing strategy because there are no adverse effects and it may lead to an improvement in performance..”  (Rollo et al., 2011)


 carb-rinsing cycling performance

The effect of different durations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance

“…distance cycled during the 10-s mouth rinse trial…was significantly greater compared to the placebo. (Sinclair et al., 2013)


 carb-rinsing track running performance

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Improves 1.5 h Run Performance: Is There A Dose-Effect?

“…rinsing the mouth with a CHO (carbohydrate)-E solution, compared to placebo, enhances distance covered in a 90-minute running performance trial.,” (Wright & Davison, 2013)


 carb-rinsing gi tract

Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

“Mouth rinse with CHO (carbohydrate) can be a good choice to enhance performance without using the GI tract.” (Prado de Oliviera, 2014)


 carb-rinsing improves cycling performance

The Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on 1-h Cycle Time Trial Performance

“In conclusion improved performance of high-intensity, 1-h cycle time is not related to an increased availability of glucose and maintained CHO (carbohydrate) oxidation rates. It appears that during exercise of this nature, endogenous supplies of CHO (carbohydrate) (muscle and liver glycogen and plasma glucose) are not limiting.” (Carter et al., 2004)


 carb-rinsing suppress appetite exercise

Mouth rinsing with a sweet solution increases energy expenditure and decreases appetite during 60 min of self-regulated walking exercise

“mouth rinsing with a sweet solution can increase self-selected exercise intensity and energy expenditure, in addition to reducing appetite, during 60 min of treadmill walking at a fixed moderate exertion." (Deighton et al., 2016)


 carb-rinsing improves treadmill running performance

Carbohydrate mouth rinse enhances time to exhaustion during treadmill exercise

“Endurance capacity, based on time to exhaustion on a treadmill, was improved when either mouth rinsing or ingesting a CHO (carbohydrate) solution, compared to PLA.” (Fraga et al., 2017)

 carb-rinsing cycling improve

No dose response effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling time trial performance

“...mouth rinsing and expectorating a 7% maltodextrin solution, for 5 s routinely during exercise was associated with improved cycle time trial performance approximately 1 h in duration.”

(James et al., 2017)


 combvat fatigue during strenth  session

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Counters Fatigue Related Strength Reduction

“CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinse resulted in decreased torque attenuation as compared with a noncaloric control mouth rinse, in a fatigued state.” (Jensen et al., 2015)


 carb-rinsing improves maximum cycling performance

Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Performance after Prolonged Submaximal Cycling

“CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinse helps maintain power output late in TT’s compared to placebo. Although marginal gains were achieved with a CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinse (35 s), small performance effects can have significant outcomes in real-world competitions.” (Jensen et al., 2017)


 running performance imoproved

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Enhances Time to Exhaustion of Running Performance Among Dehydrated Subjects

“In conclusion, mouth rinsing with a CHO (carbohydrate) solution for 10 s, at every 15 min during exercise in a dehydrated state had improved the running time to exhaustion compared to PLA.” (Kammaruddin et al., 2017)


 carb-rinsing improves cycling performance

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Improves Cycling Time-Trial Performance without Altering Plasma Insulin Concentration

“...mouth rinsing with a 6.4% glucose solution improved 40 km cycling time-trial performance without altering plasma insulin or glucose concentration.” (Murray et al. 2018)


 carb-rinsing cycling performance

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Maintains Muscle Electromyographic Activity and Increases Time to Exhaustion during Moderate but not High-Intensity Cycling Exercise

“CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinse may have a greater influence on the excitability of the corticomotor pathway during fatigue…” (Bastos-Silva et al., 2016)


 bench press weight performance carb rinse 

Carbohydrate mouth rinse improves morning high-intensity exercise performance

“...oral CHO (carbohydrate) rinsing solution significantly improved the morning performance of CMJ height, 10 m sprint times, bench press and squat repetitions to failure and felt arousal...” (Clark et al., 2017)

 running performance improved 

Running Performance with Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Sweetened Mouth Rinses

“A sweet tasting MR did improve endurance performance compared to water in a significant manner (avg. 4.5% improvement; 3+ min.)” (Hawkins et al., 2017)

 high intensity improve performance 

Oral Carbohydrate Rinse: Placebo or Beneficial?

“Carbohydrate during exercise has been demonstrated to improve exercise performance even when the exercise is of high intensity and relatively short duration (approximately 1 h)” (Jeukendrup, 2017)

 endurance performance carb rinse 

Go rinse your mouth: a novel way to improve endurance performance? 

“Who would have ever believed that just rinsing one's mouth with a sports energy drink and not swallowing but spitting it out would improve endurance performance?” (Place, 2009)

 carb-rinse improves soccer peroformance 

The Efficacy of Acute Nutritional Interventions on Soccer Skill Performance

“carbohydrates, consumed in the form of a 6-8 % solution of glucose...enhanced at least one aspect of skilled performance over the duration of exercise (75-90 min)” (Russel, 2014)

 enhanced sports performance carb rinse 

The Governor has a sweet tooth - mouth sensing of nutrients to enhance sports performance

“ of the applications of the carbohydrate mouth sensing might be to enhance performance in situations where it is not desirable to ingest carbohydrate.” (Burke et al., 2014)



 carb-rinsing / cycling

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Enhances High Intensity Time Trial Performance Following Prolonged Cycling

“…oropharangeal receptors may be sensitive to caloric content.” (Luden et al., 2016)


 carb-rinsing improves performance

Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuates exercise-induced decline in executive function

“...mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution attenuated the expected decline in executive function due to the sustained moderately high-intensity exercise” (Konishi et al., 2017)


 carb-rinsing cycling sprints

The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

“Increased central drive and/or motivation associated with CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinses suggests their use may be beneficial in sports requiring high levels of central activation and motivation over a short time, such as sprinting.” (Phillips et al., 2014)


 carb-rinsing cyccling performance training

Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal sprint performance in competitive male cyclists

“…the effect of CHO (carbohydrate) ingestion on short duration endurance events may be related to a non-metabolic central influence on the brain.” (Chong et al., 2010)


 Carb rinsing reduces for GI distress

Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress 

“Mouth rinse with CHO (carbohydrate) can be a good choice to enhance performance without using the GI tract.” (Prado de Oliviera, 2014)


 Short duration exercise carb-rinse

Systematic review: Carbohydrate supplementation on exercise performance or capacity of varying durations

“Muscle glycogen is generally not limiting to performance when exercise durations are less than ~60 min.” (Stellingwerff and Cox, 2014)


 carb rinse improves running perfromance

The Influence of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Self-Selected Intermittent Running Performance

“...the positive influence of mouth rinsing is that CHO (carbohydrate) in the oral cavity is detected by the brain as an incoming supply of its essential fuel supply, that is, glucose. In the presence of this perceived impending increase in its fuel supply, the balance of excitation and inhibition of the brain’s motor cortex may be altered in favor of excitation, allowing athletes to increase their running speeds.” (Rollo et al., 2015)


 carb-rinsing helps motor output

Carbohydrate in the mouth immediately facilitates motor output

“…chemoreceptors in the mouth not only subserve the perceptual experiences of taste, but may also transduce energy density and generate afference capable of modifying motor output.” (Gant et al., 2010)


 timed cycling trial performance

Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state

“…the reduction in motor output…that results from central feedback of CHO (carbohydrate) availability (liver, muscle, and blood) can be ameliorated by the central stimulatory effect of a CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinse.” (Lane et al., 2013)


 neuromuscular performance during exercise

CHO (carbohydrate) Mouth Rinse Ameliorates Neuromuscular Response with Lower Endogenous CHO (carbohydrate) Stores

"The CHO (carbohydrate) mouth rinse influences exercise performance when endogenous CHO (carbohydrate) availability is low, and an enhanced central motor drive is potentially the main influencing mechanism." (Ataide-Silva et al. 2016)


 carb-rinsing fencing training

The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on fencing performance and cognitive function following fatigue-inducing fencing

“...rinsing the mouth with a MALT solution during rest periods between fights could be utilised as a strategy to improve accuracy, especially in the latter elimination rounds of the competition where the onset of central fatigue is likely to occur.” (Rowlatt et al., 2017)

 Improve performance with carb rinse

Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing: Improved Neuromuscular Performance During Isokinetic Fatiguing Exercise

“When rinsing the mouth with a solution containing CHO (carbohydrate), independently of sweetness, isokinetic performance was enhanced, as shown by the greater total work achieved in comparison with a nonrinse condition (CON).” (Bazzucchi et al., 2017)


 carb-rinsing inmproves performance during activity

Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception

“...increased task-specific activity in neural regions involved in motor control and perception caused by the mere presence of carbohydrate in the mouth. Our carbohydrate stimulus had a priming effect on regions in the human cerebral cortex that immediately increased functional activation within the sensorimotor cortex during a motor task.” (Turner et al., 2014)

 carb-rinsing mouth receptors improve performance

Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity

“…there may be a class of so far unidentified oral receptors that respond to the caloric property of carbohydrate independently of those for sweetness.” (Chambers et al., 2009)


 carb-rinsing mouth receptors improve performance 

The Effects of Mental Fatigue on Physical Performance: A Systematic Review

“The duration and intensity of the physical task appear to be important factors in the decrease in physical performance due to mental fatigue.” (Custem et al., 2017)

 carb-rinsing mouth receptors improve performance 

Cognitive Performance Enhancement Induced by Caffeine, Carbohydrate and Guarana Mouth Rinsing during Submaximal Exercise

“...the serial administration of CHO (carbohydrate)...improves cognitive performance and decreases subjective perception of effort.” (Pomportes et al., 2017)



 increase brain activity

The Sweet Taste of Success: The Presence of Glucose in the Oral Cavity Moderates the Depletion of Self-Control Resources

“...the presence of glucose in the oral cavity serves to moderate self-control resource depletion, possibly by signaling increased activity in regions of the brain associated with reward, motivation, and regulation of motor activity.” (Haggar & Chatzisarantis 2013)

 GI Distress removes

Combat Gastro-Intestinal (GI) Distress During Later Stages of Race

"These findings are encouraging for endurance athletes and may be particularly meaningful to those who demonstrate GI intolerance of CHO (carbohydrate) ingestion at later stages of the race." (Jensen et al., 2018)


 carb-rinsing improves self control 

The Role of Glucose in Self-Control: Another Look at the Evidence and an Alternative Conceptualization

“As the primary form of energy for the brain, glucose is a factor not only in self-control but in all mental processes.” (Beedie, 2012)

 performance without gi tract

Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

“Mouth rinse with CHO (carbohydrate) can be a good choice to enhance performance without using the GI tract.” (Prado de Oliviera, 2014)


 boost in self cxontrol with carb-rinse

Motivational Versus Metabolic Effects of Carbohydrates on Self-Control

“...participants who rinsed their mouths with, but did not ingest, carbohydrate solutions showed immediate boosts in self-contol.” (Molden ET al., 2012)


 carb-rinsing boosts motivation

Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity

“Oral exposure to carbohydrate evokes a central response that enables subjects to increase their power output by reducing the perception of a given workload." (Chambers, E.S.; Bridge, M.W.; Jones, D.A, 2009)


 carb-rinsing improves power output

Effect of mouth rinsing and ingestion of carbohydrate solutions on mood and perceptual responses during exercise

“CHO (carbohydrate) ingestion improved perceived ratings of vigour and increased power output during exercise.” (Ali, A., Moss, C., Yoo, M.J.Y. et al., 2017)


 carb-rinsing improves power output 

The Gargle Effect: Rinsing the Mouth With Glucose Enhances Self-Control

“...glucose improves self-control directly by activating operations that underlie successful self-control” (Sanders et al., 2012)

 carb-rinse reduces food intake 

Carbohydrate mouth rinse reduces subsequent food intake

“Mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution compared to a placebo solution reduced subsequent ad-libitum food intake.” (James et al., 2016)